Why does RFID technology conquer more and more widespread markets, penetrating the most diverse areas of activity where fast and reliable identification of items is required? Because it has a number of advantages, in particular:
RFID tags do not need contact or direct visibility;
RFID tags are read quickly and accurately (approaching 100% identification);
RFID can even be used in aggressive environments, and RFID tags can be read through dirt, paint, steam, water, plastic, wood;
passive RFID tags have virtually unlimited lifespan;
RFID tags carry a large amount of information and can be intelligent;
RFID tags are almost impossible to fake;
RFID tags can be not only for reading, but also for recording a sufficiently large amount of information.
The use of RFID-technology in retail allows you to switch from using client relationship management software systems based on a centralized database to systems with distributed databases, with local customer databases stored in non-volatile RFID memory. When using RFID cards to create loyalty systems in the network of trading platforms located in different parts of the city or in different cities, there is no need to connect all these platforms with powerful corporate computing networks. This becomes possible because all customer relationship management solutions at each site are not made according to a single centralized customer database, but from local databases stored in RFID cards. Such a solution not only makes it cheaper in principle to create loyalty systems for such objects, but also makes it possible to use them where, for technical reasons, a high-performance corporate network cannot be established. And today in Russia these are almost all trade networks with platforms in different settlements and the majority of networks whose trading platforms are scattered throughout the territory of one settlement.
In transport applications, the main place (about 80%) is occupied by Philips Semiconductors Mifare® cards. In particular, they are used in the Moscow metro, in commuter trains and in a number of other applications. The cards correspond to the third level of ISO 14443 A and are supplemented with their own cryptographic protection mechanism, which excludes fake transport cards by hobbyists to ride at someone else's expense. These same cards are used in the networks of gas stations, in club systems and in many other applications where contactless technology is indispensable and protection against unauthorized use is required.
Logistics and warehouse
In these applications, the identifiers of the two standards of the mid-frequency range (ISO 15693 and EPC), as well as the identifiers of the high-frequency range according to the standard ISO 18000 work.
The need for an EPC (electronic product code) standard is caused by the fact that, firstly, rewritable labels according to ISO 15693 are unprofitable in those applications where you only need to mark the goods, and, secondly, when using them, the principle of privacy is violated, the cause of several scandalous proceedings. EPC is similar to the barcode (by data format), and the function of deactivating the label allows you to destroy it at the moment when there is no need for it.
High-frequency marks (800 MHz ... 2.45 GHz) provide maximum recording and reading distance (up to 8 ... 10 meters), which is indispensable for the implementation of RFID technology in inventory management processes.
This is a completely new, but very promising use of RFID technology. The speed of reading and reliability, high security from unauthorized access allowed to begin the introduction of electronic tags in passports, driver's licenses, airline tickets and other documents. Currently, in many countries, projects are underway to convert domestic passports to an electronic basis. At the same time, not only the usual data of the owner (full name, year of birth, and so on), but also biometric features, as well as color digital photography will be entered in the memory of the implanted tag in the passport.
Access Control Systems (ACS)
This is historically the oldest application of RFID technology. Now access to the office or to the company on a contactless plastic card (proximity card) has become commonplace. The first solutions based on the proximity technology were relatively expensive (if compared with the most popular magnetic cards at the time), however, the convenience and reliability provided by RFID made it possible to practically force out all competing technologies from the market of professional access systems for several years. The bulk of the cards and readers for access systems operate in a passive mode in the 125 kHz frequency range. There are no really established standards, but the formats of the companies EM Marin, HID and Motorola (Indala) are most popular and widespread.
Mifare® is a registered trademark of Philips Semicondactors